15. Tropical Storm HAIMA (Ofel/24w)          Print this Article
>> September 10-14, 2004

Haima: contributed by China, is the sea horse.

Storm Origins

An interim STWO was issued by JTWC at 10/1400 UTC mentioning an area of convection which had persisted approximately 150 nm southwest of Taipei, Taiwan. The convection was located along the southern periphery of a possible LLCC. An upper-level analysis indicated moderate vertical shear and favorable divergence. The development potential was upgraded to 'fair' at 1700 UTC as the system continued to slowly gain in organization. At 11/0600 UTC the system was centred 135 nm south-southwest of Taipei, Taiwan, tracking across the island, and had lost much of its associated deep convection. However, the LLCC was still intact east of Taiwan. JMA began classifying the storm as a tropical depression at 11/0000 UTC, upgrading to a 35-kt tropical storm at 11/1200 UTC and naming it Haima. At the same time, the system was given the PAGASA name of Ofel when that agency began issuing warnings.

At 1900 UTC 11 September animated infrared satellite imagery showed the LLCC approximately 55 nm southeast of Taipei, Taiwan, and embedded in a longwave trough off the coast of China. Satellite analyses indicated that the system exhibited subtropical characteristics with a MSW of 30 to 35 kts while QuikScat depicted an elongated wind field, also with a MSW of 30 to 35 kts. Upper-level conditions appeared favourable but there was a strong vertical wind shear gradient associated with the frontal boundary. However, the potential was there for the LLCC to disengage from the frontal zone and become fully tropical. Therefore, a TCFA was issued. At 12/0600 UTC Haima was centred 25 nm east-southeast of Taipei and moving north-northwest at 6 kts. At this time multi- spectral imagery indicated that the deep convection associated with the LLCC had decreased. Radar showed that most of the convection was located mainly in the western and southern quadrants. However, the possibility of a tropical cyclone forming remained 'good'.

JTWC's first warning on Tropical Depression Haima was issued at 1800 UTC 12 September with the centre located approximately 100 nm north- northeast of Taipei, Taiwan, and moving north-northwest at 5 kts. The system then tracked northwestwards towards the southeast coast of China. At 13/0000 UTC it was located 240 nm south of Shanghai, China. Haima made landfall south of Shanghai at 13/0500 UTC before turning towards the west-northwest six hours later. It then resumed its northwesterly heading at 13/1800 UTC, the time of issuance of the final warning by JTWC. At this time, satellite imagery revealed that Haima had become a completely sheared system due to interaction with the baroclinic zone located to its west and all its core convection had gone. JMA's last mention of Haima was at 14/0000 UTC.

In JTWC's eyes, Haima's MSW (1-min avg) never exceeded 30 kts but all Asian agencies regarded this system as a 35-kt tropical storm at its peak. JMA estimated 40-kt winds and CP of 996 mb from 11/1800 UTC to 12/0600 UTC while PAGASA classified Ofel as a 35-kt storm while it was located within their AOR.

Editor's Note: The reason JTWC did not issue warnings on this system on 11 September was that they considered it to be subtropical. STWOs issued on the 11th and 12th acknowledged the existence of 35-kt winds, but it was felt that the system was not fully tropical. There were some who disagreed with this assessment. David Roth wrote in an e-mail: "After checking the JTWC site and looking at the image from 1900 UTC, I don't see anything subtropical about it. It has central convection and looks like a TD or weak TS. There does seem to be a front draping over it, but nothing more. Lots of TCs have fronts draping over the system (in the Atlantic anyway)."

Huang Chunliang Reports

Following are reports compiled and sent by Huang Chunliang concerning observations and storm effects in China, Japan and Korea, respectively. A special thanks to Chunliang for sending the data. (To convert from metres/second (m/s) to knots, divide m/s by 0.51444, or to approximate, simply double the m/s value.)

(1) Report on Tropical Storm 0421 (Haima) from China
{Part I}. Landfall

According to the NMC warnings, Tropical Storm 0421 (Haima) 
made landfall in Yongqiang Town, Longwan District, Wenzhou 
City, Zhejiang Province around 13/0400 UTC with a MSW of 
18 m/s and a CP of 998 hPa.

{Part II}. Meteorological Obs from Taiwan

1. Daily Rainfall [09/16-10/16Z] (only Top 5 listed)

Ranking     Station ID          City/County         Rainfall (mm)
--------    ----------------    ----------------    ------------- 
01          CWB C0A88           Taipei County       290.0
02          CWB C0A89           Taipei County       208.5
03          CWB C1C48           Taoyuan County      202.5
04          WMO 46685           Taipei County       195.0
05          CWB C0A9G           Taipei City         188.5

2. Daily Rainfall [10/16-11/16Z] (only Top 5 listed)

Ranking     Station ID          City/County         Rainfall (mm)
--------    ----------------    ----------------    -------------
01          CWB C0A9G           Taipei City         611.5
02          CWB C1A65           Taipei County       393.0
03          WMO 46685           Taipei County       388.0
04          CWB C1D48           Taoyuan County      386.0
05          CWB C1A64           Taipei County       383.5

3. Daily Rainfall [11/16-12/16Z] (only Top 5 listed)
Ranking     Station ID          City/County         Rainfall (mm)
--------    ----------------    ----------------    -------------
01          CWB C1D40           Hsinchu County      371.0
02          CWB C0D36           Hsinchu County      333.5
03          CWB 01A21           Taipei County       291.0
04          CWB C1C46           Taoyuan County      289.5
05          CWB C1D42           Hsinchu County      283.0

4. Peak sustained winds & gusts

Only those stations that reported peak gusts >= 24.5 m/s (i.e.,
Beaufort Force 10 or higher) are given:

                                 Peak SW              Peak Gust
Station (WMO ID)           (mps/dir/Local Date)  (mps/dir/Local Date)
Lanyu (46762/59567, Alt 325m) 25.4/230/11th        35.9/220/11th  
Dongshi (46730, Alt 45m)      19.4/ 50/11th        29.6/ 50/11th
An Bu  (46691, Alt 1450m)     17.9/350/12th        28.4/ 20/12th
Wu-Chi (46777, Alt 5m)        14.6/350/11th        24.5/360/11th

{Part III}. Meteorological Obs from Mainland China

1. Fuzhou City, Fujian Province

Pingtan (WMO58944), Fuzhou City recorded a 24-hr rainfall 
amount of 250.8 mm [09/00-10/00Z], which turned out to be 
a new record of daily rainfall for September for the 
station, the former one being 242.4 mm recorded on 
Sep 5, 1958.
2. Zhejiang, Shandong, Jiangsu and Hebei Provinces

During the 72-hr period ending at 15/00Z, torrential rains 
were reported by the provinces of Zhejiang, Shandong, 
Jiangsu and Hebei with Fenghua, Zhejiang reporting the 
highest accumulation of 228 mm.

Coastal Zhejiang reported gusts of Beaufort Force 8 to 10 
during the storm with Kanmen reported the highest value 
of 27.5 m/s.

Coastal Qingdao City, Shandong Province reported a peak 
gust of Beaufort Force 10 on the 14th.

{Part IV}. Damage

1. Zhejiang

The storm damaged 7,800 ha. of farmland in Zhejiang 
Province, where direct economic losses were estimated 
to have been over 53 million yuan.

2. Fuzhou, Fujian

Floodings and landslides were reported in the county of 
Pingtan. Preliminary statistics indicated that the 
torrential rains (Sep 7-10), including those triggered by 
the monsoonal flow that gestated the pre-Haima depression 
(i.e., TD-05 per NMC), had caused 54.6 million yuan of 
direct economic losses in Pingtan County and Changle City
(also a sub-city of Fuzhou City).

(2) Brief Report on Typhoon 0420 (Haima) from Japan
1. Ishigakijima, Okinawa (WMO47918, 24.34N 124.16 E, Alt 6m)

 Peak sustained wind: 16.7 m/s [11/2240Z]
           Peak gust: 26.8 m/s [11/1225Z]
Peak hourly rainfall: 34.5 mm  [12/10-12/11Z]

2. Yonagunijima, Okinawa (WMO47912, 24.47N 123.01E, Alt 30m)

Peak sustained wind: 19.1 m/s [11/2120Z]
          Peak gust: 31.1 m/s [11/2037Z]
Peak hourly rainfall: 54.0 mm  [12/13-12/14Z]

3. Kabira, Okinawa (JMA94036, 24.46N 124.14E, Alt 7m)

Peak hourly rainfall: 54.5 mm  [12/10-12/11Z]

(3) Brief Report on Tropical Storm Haima - Rainfall Obs from Korea

WANDO (34.40N 126.70E)               104.5 mm [11/00-12/00Z]
HEUKSANDO (34.68N 125.45E)            91.0 mm [11/00-12/00Z]
SEOSAN (36.77N 126.50E)               75.0 mm [11/00-12/00Z]
GWANGJU (35.17N 126.90E)              67.0 mm [11/00-12/00Z]
GUNSAN (35.98N 126.70E)               60.5 mm [11/00-12/00Z]
MUNSAN (37.88N 126.75E)               59.0 mm [11/00-12/00Z]
DONGDUCHEON (37.90N 127.07E)          58.5 mm [11/00-12/00Z]
INCHEON (37.48N 126.63E)              57.0 mm [11/00-12/00Z]
JEJU (33.52N 126.53E)                 54.0 mm [11/00-12/00Z]
SUWON (37.27N 126.98E)                54.0 mm [11/00-12/00Z]
SEOUL (37.57N 126.97E)                52.5 mm [11/00-12/00Z]

(Report written by Kevin Boyle except "Huang Chunliang Reports" by Huang Chunliang)

Source: Gary Padgett's Monthly Tropical Cyclone Summary - September 2004

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